Reservoirs, Seals and
Prof. John G. Kaldi
and development geologists and reservoir engineers will benefit from the
straightforward and intuitive presentation of principles governing hydrocarbon
accumulations and their practical applications.
course demonstrates the use of basic petrographic, wireline and capillary
pressure data to evaluate reservoir rock quality, pay vs. non-pay, expected
fluid saturations, seal capacity (thickness of hydrocarbon column a seal
can hold before it leaks), depth of the reservoir fluid contacts, and thickness
of the transition zone. It also explains the use of 2-way capillary pressure
analyses to approximate recovery efficiency during primary or secondary
recovery. This popular course has received extremely favorable reviews
when presented previously to the AAPG, IPA and PESA and as an internal
training course for several major oil and gas companies.
course will be a workshop format. Participants will delve into the details
of working with data specifically in four exercises:
to evaluation of reservoirs, seals and pay.
II BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CAPILLARY
of uses of capillary principles in reservoir evaluation; fundamentals of
capillarity: buoyancy vs. capillary pressure; wettability; contact angles;
derivation of capillary pressure equations; definition of Free Water Level;
description of the mercury injection apparatus.
III EXERCISE 1
of capillary pressure data to determine Sw at various heights above the
Free Water Level / subsurface depths.
IV EXERCISE 2
is that a large structure has been identified by seismic and a well is
drilled at the crest. Task is to use given rock properties, structure and
capillary pressure data to evaluate reservoir quality of encountered rock
types, locate fluid contacts and establish saturations with depth. Also,
use these data to determine seal capacity, and assess depths at which each
rock type becomes pay.
SEAL EVALUATION (3 Case Studies)
concepts of top seal, "sealing" faults, "leaking" faults.
Demonstrate application of integrated petrophysical and geochemical techniques
in evaluation of seal potential in Talang Akar Fm., offshore NW Java.
Details of combining fault analysis, production data and reservoir geochemistry
to determine degree of compartmentalisation in Pagerungan Gas Field.
Description of seal evaluation in dynamic petroleum systems: example from
East Java and Northwest Shelf, Australia
VI PORE GEOMETRY
the effects of pore geometry (size, shape, distribution of pores and pore
throats) on relative permeability and capillary pressure. Relate these
properties to amounts, types and rates of fluids produced. Use drainage
and imbibition capillary pressure data to evaluate recovery efficiency
of reservoirs on primary depletion as well as to judge the distribution
of remaining fluids prior to secondary production.
VII EXERCISE 3
capillary pressure curves to pore geometry. Qualitatively estimate key
MICP attributes from rock descriptions; match petrographic images to capillary
VIII NET PAY DETERMINATION
conventional methods of determination of net pay in a reservoir and demonstrate
some improved techniques using data from core, sidewall core, cuttings,
conventional plug measurements (porosity and permeability) in conjunction
with capillary pressure data.
IX EXERCISE 4
available reservoir data and production constraints to predict recovery
efficiency; calculate recoverable reserves and evaluate reservoir management
(optional 5th day where company specific examples are worked,
can be included by request)
are provided. A hand calculator, coloured pencils and a ruler are required.